A total of 2,260 people of community was in fact at random selected away from Lebanon’s districts into the a beneficial proportionate rate

A total of 2,260 people of community was in fact at random selected away from Lebanon’s districts into the a beneficial proportionate rate

Studies Design and you may Users

It mix-sectional analysis is presented ranging from . Areas are put into subdistricts, which can be divided in to villages. I selected 2 communities per subdistrict away from an inventory provided by this new Main Company away from Statistics into the Lebanon. The fresh new survey try marketed at random to help you property according to a haphazard-sampling strategy. thirty two Those who accessible to take part in the study have been invited to do the newest questionnaire through a facial-to-face interview. The someone old > 18 many years was basically entitled to engage. Those with intellectual disability and people who refused to finish the questionnaire have been excluded. Data range is actually did from the data-separate group.

Restricted Attempt Size Calculation

Based on the formula \[n = <(Z_<1-?/dos>)^2 p(1-p) \over d^2>\] wherein n = size of the sample, P = expected proportion, d = the desired margin of error, and Z1??/2 = 1.96 for ? = 5%, a minimal sample of 1,152 participants was needed based on a P = 50% expected frequency of nomophobia in the absence of similar studies, a d = 5% risk of error, and a design effect of 3.


The survey utilized from inside the interview was a student in Arabic, the native language of Lebanon. The initial a portion of the questionnaire reviewed new sociodemographic features away from the participants (decades, quantity of college students, intercourse, degree top, socioeconomic height, and you may marital reputation). Puffing try reviewed of the answering “yes” to your concern, “Are you a recently available smoker?” towards specification which integrated puffing about step 1 waterpipe otherwise cigarette smoking in the past 1 month. Questions regarding the sort of smoke used (smokes, waterpipe), what number of smoking cigarettes used just about every day, additionally the level of waterpipes smoked per week had been including expected. People exactly who didn’t meet step one of these dos requirements have been felt nonsmokers. The following the main survey contains another steps.

Nomophobia Questionnaire

The new Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) try an excellent 20-product measure 21 which is confirmed within the Lebanon. 33 Items are scored based on a beneficial 7-point Likert level, having step one = do not agree anyway and seven = highly concur. High score mean large nomophobia. The new Cronbach ? for this scale is actually advanced level (? = 0.948). The newest NMP-Q does not have a great cutoff part. The entire rating yielded 4 types of people which had no nomophobia (an incredible number of 20), lightweight nomophobia (ratings anywhere between 21 and you can 59), modest nomophobia (results ranging from 60 and you can 99), and you will major nomophobia (ratings ranging from a hundred and 140).

Personality Catalog to possess DSM-5

The newest adult type of the brand new Identity Index to possess DSM-5 temporary mode is verified for the Arabic 34 and also twenty-five items that assess the 5 personality trait domains: bad connect with (involves the connection with bad feelings; https://datingmentor.org/nl/her-overzicht/ items 8, 9, 10, eleven, 15), detachment (your state out-of depression, mistrust; activities cuatro, 13, fourteen, sixteen, 18), antagonism (societal withdrawal, grandiosity; situations 17, 19, 20, twenty-two, 25), disinhibition (are impulsive, irresponsible, careless; products step one, 2, step 3, 5, 6), and you will psychoticism (that have strange routines and you can perceptual dilemmas; things 7, twelve, 21, 23, 24). That it product is utilized to possess people aged ? 18 decades. The brand new answers may include extremely wrong (level = 0) so you can very right (measure = 3). thirty-five Higher ratings mean higher dysfunction regarding certain character characteristic domain name. This new Cronbach ? for it scale is actually higher level (? = 0.943).

NEO Four-Foundation Collection

Brand new NEO Five-Grounds Collection (NEO-FFI) is a great 60-items questionnaire you to assesses all the 5 first identification dimensions (several issues for every single domain): neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. 36 Brand new Arabic variety of the fresh new NEO-FFI was utilized. 37 Items are answered for the an excellent 5-section Likert size off strongly disagree to highly consent. For every single aspect get is actually computed because of the summing the remedies for the the questions of your part. The brand new Cronbach ? for it level is actually higher level (? = 0.963) because are you to toward different subscales: neuroticism (? = 0.895), extraversion (? = 0.707), openness to play (? = 0.923), agreeableness (? = 0.920), and you can conscientiousness (? = 0.931). Large ratings mean a more powerful identity feature.

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